PhabrOmeter
Paper Towels/Tissues Cases
Evaluation of Paper Towels on the Market
(Show Details...)

We ran a study of the comparison of paper towel products using PhabrOmeter®. We also put a 100% silk sample in this group as a reference sample. Selected products are listed:

  • Bounty
  • White Blancas Bounty
  • Jubilee
  • Mardi Gras
  • Viva
  • Silk_617 - 100% silk sample as a reference fabric

The test result is in the following tables:

Remark: a larger softness value, a softer fabric; "Viva" is the softest one among the 5 paper samples

Remark: a larger resilience value, a resilient fabric; "Bounty" is the most resilient one among the 6 samples

Remark: a larger smoothness value, a smoother fabric; Silk_617 is the smoothest one among the 6 samples

Using the test results, the towels can be "fingerprinted" as below so that more detailed comparison can be made between the products.


From the following table you can see that we used a silk fabric as the reference, the product "Viva" is next to the Silk_617 - no matter this value of 5.20 means a large distance between "Viva" and the silk sample, "Viva" has a better hand feeling than the other 4 paper samples. The following table shows how close the other paper towels are relative to the reference.

Remark: If the reference fabric is the one you like the most, then for other fabrics, the smaller the RHV value, the better the overall hand.


Evaluation of Facial Tissues
(Show Details...)

We conducted a measurement to evaluate a set of facial tissue paper by using PhabrOmeter®-S, a special model with very high sensitivities. Each sample had three repeats. All these facial tissue papers are single ply and not embossed. Sample EM 200 was not treated and set as the control (reference sample), and the others were coated on one side with different formulas.

The following shows the extraction curves of the 7 facial tissues with coated side tested.

The PhabrOmeter® test result for the 7 facial tissue attributes listed in the following table:

Remarks: 1. a larger resilience value, a resilient fabric; 2. a larger softness value, a softer fabric; 3. a larger smoothness value, a smoother fabric.

From the above table you can see there were two types of treatments, one made EM215, EM202, EM244 and EM266 less resilient but no significant different changes on softness and smoothness values; the other treatment made EM 271 and EM288 much stiffer and less softer but both didn't change smoothness value that much.

Instrument to replace Human sensory evaluations

Although originally aimed at the measurement of fabric hand, PhabrOmeter® technology has shown much wider applicability and gone on to be used in a range of industries, for things like paper and tissue products, performance evaluation of cosmetics, the feel of interiors and paints. The technology continues to spread to more fields where human touch is involved.


For instrument to replace human sensory evaluations, the human sensory evaluation has to be used first as validation, in establishing the instrumental approach. Once accepted, it will become the standard procedure in routine evaluation just like the colorimeters.

Issues involved in Human sensory evaluations
  • touch only
  • touch + sight
  • finger, palm or tongue
  • expert judges ( quality evaluation)
  • consumer judges (preference)
  • background, market, product dependent

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